Non-glycoside iridoid with a sedative effect||
Flavonoids: Flavonoids occur (as white and yellow plant pigments
found almost as commonly as chlorophyll) as Glycosides or in a free state. In
plants it is essential for protecting plant tissue from UV radiation and acts as
antioxidants. As pigments it is also responsible for Autumn colors in leaves and
yellow/red pigmentation in flowers.
Laboratory experiments have been
conducted on the beneficiary effect of Flavonoids on the heart and circulatory
system. Flavonoids are also used to mitigate stress, especially environmental
stress. Flavonoids are often used for their antioxidant effect against free
radicals. There are also strong indications that they have antiviral,
anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties but dosage has not been
determined which will obviously have a profound effect on their efficacy as a
component of this herb.
Alkaloids Typical alkaloids are alkaline organic vegetable
substances containing one or more nitrogen atoms. This nitrogen base is capable
of combining with acids to form crystalline salts. Most alkaloids are derived
from amino acids while a few are derived from isoprene units. Alkaloids are white or colourless solids containing oxygen (oxygen
free alkaloids are few and far between and then can only exist as liquids) Most
alkaloids are not water soluble, extraction is normally by tincture.
Alkaloids are found in about one quarter of all flowering plants. Thousands of
alkaloids have been identified from a large number of plants where the alkaloid
can be present in virtually every part of the plant or just a specific part like
rhizome, leaf or seed.
generally have profound physiological impact on the human body and nervous
system effects are predominant.
Many alkaloids are used as extracted and refined compounds derived from the
actual plants or synthesised compounds in pharmaceutical drugs.
Several Alkaloids are banned in many countries because of the extreme impact
on the nervous system (strychnine for instance is a deadly poison in very small
doses) and the habit forming nature of some of the alkaloid compounds.
Tannins: Tannins are the largest group of polyphenols found
widely in bark, wood, leaves and even some fruit. Widely used to tan animal
hides in the leather production industry this constituent is an Astringent,
works against inflammation in mucus membranes and other skin conditions,
prevents bleeding of small wounds as well as uterine bleeding and is effective
against diarrhoea and dysentery.
Tannins should be used with care as they
tend to inhibit the absorption of other nutrients and substances therefore
reducing the efficacy of other medicinal compounds in the medication.