Amines: Amines are derived from ammonia by
replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with carbon atoms. Amines are basic
synthesised derivatives of ammonium chloride, a natural salt.
Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine (derived from Ephedra Sinica -Ma Huang) are possibly the best
known amines and are widely used for allergies that affect the respiratory
Mescaline is another amine that is known
for its hallucinogenic effect and the less known Muscarine is a toxic amine
found in many toxic mushrooms.
Flavonoids: Flavonoids occur (as white and yellow plant pigments
found almost as commonly as chlorophyll) as Glycosides or in a free state. In
plants it is essential for protecting plant tissue from UV radiation and acts as
antioxidants. As pigments it is also responsible for Autumn colors in leaves and
yellow/red pigmentation in flowers.
Laboratory experiments have been
conducted on the beneficiary effect of Flavonoids on the heart and circulatory
system. Flavonoids are also used to mitigate stress, especially environmental
stress. Flavonoids are often used for their antioxidant effect against free
radicals. There are also strong indications that they have antiviral,
anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties but dosage has not been
determined which will obviously have a profound effect on their efficacy as a
component of this herb.
Catechins: A condensed Tannin used in the
cosmetic industry for brown and black coloring. It is astringent and may cause
Tannins: Tannins are the largest group of polyphenols found
widely in bark, wood, leaves and even some fruit. Widely used to tan animal
hides in the leather production industry this constituent is an Astringent,
works against inflammation in mucus membranes and other skin conditions,
prevents bleeding of small wounds as well as uterine bleeding and is effective
against diarrhoea and dysentery.
Tannins should be used with care as they
tend to inhibit the absorption of other nutrients and substances therefore
reducing the efficacy of other medicinal compounds in the medication.
Phenolic acids: Therapeutically valuable and not toxic the
Phenolic acids are analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and