Carotenoids is the largest group in the
Tetraterpenes. Carotenoids are responsible for the red to yellow pigmentation in
vegetables and fruit. A number of the over 500 carotenoids are
pro-vitamins and are converted to vitamin A in the digestive process.
carotenoids have been found to have antioxidant properties and help in the
control of free radicals. There is also some that believe that some of the
carotenoids are also active against some cancer cells although this aspect is
still being researched.
Flavonoids: Flavonoids occur (as white and yellow plant pigments
found almost as commonly as chlorophyll) as Glycosides or in a free state. In
plants it is essential for protecting plant tissue from UV radiation and acts as
antioxidants. As pigments it is also responsible for Autumn colors in leaves and
yellow/red pigmentation in flowers.
Laboratory experiments have been
conducted on the beneficiary effect of Flavonoids on the heart and circulatory
system. Flavonoids are also used to mitigate stress, especially environmental
stress. Flavonoids are often used for their antioxidant effect against free
radicals. There are also strong indications that they have antiviral,
anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties but dosage has not been
determined which will obviously have a profound effect on their efficacy as a
component of this herb.
Free Triterpenes: Free Triterpenes are anti-inflammatory and has
some immunemodulating and antiviral properties. Take care if using this compound
with other immune stimulating drugs as free triterpenes can act against these.
We strongly recommend consulting a doctor or appropriately qualified
Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides (Glycans) are polymers that are
made up as sugar chains. Polysaccharides making up the gums and mucilages, occur
in every plant.
Polysaccharides are virtually indigestible and therefore
have little or no effect if ingested. Polysaccharides are mostly inert and the
majority are not soluble in water or organic solvents. Most gums will absorb
water to the point where they become a sticky gel.
Mucilages and Gums (Polysaccharides): Widely
present in the plant kingdom these substances are hydrophilic, being able to
attract and bind with a volume of water that far exceeds the mass of the gum or
Apart from their propensity to attract
water, Mucilages and Gums are virtually inert and also almost fully indigestible.
Generally the small amount of digestion that happens extracts very little sugar and no
noteworthy pharmacological effect.
this neutrality and indigestibility their value if ingested is that they are
demulcent - which means that they coat and protect the lining of the gastric
tract, if applied externally they are emollient - which means that they coat and
protect the skin.