Pinene: Commonly found in Oil of Turpentine extracted from Pinus
specie trees, pinene (alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) is also widely distributed
in other plants. It is used for Rheumatism as a liniment but is best known by
Aromatherapists and a tonic of the mucus membranes of the respiratory system.
Pinene is also important for its pleasant fragrance and is believed to have
diuretic properties by many.
Borneol: One of the terpene alcohols, found most abundantly in
rosemary oil, has many of the properties of other terpene alcohols. It is used
as a skin tonic, a local anaesthetic, sedative and antispasmodic.
Terpene Alcohol: Valued for their fragrance,
gentle reaction on the skin and membranes and healing properties Terpene
Alcohols have earned the name of "Friendly Molecules". Alcohols are amongst the
strongest antimicrobial compounds in essential oils but lack the irritant
properties of other antimicrobial constituents like phenols.
Sesquiterpene lactones: There are thousands of sesquiterpene
lactones known. They mostly occur as a combination of several sesquiterpene
lactones and are more prevalent in leaves and flowers.
Commonly valued for
the digestive bitter benefits sesquiterpene lactones are also anti-inflammatory,
antiprotozoal, antibacterial and antimicrobial.
A large majority of
sesquiterpene lactones irritate the skin on contact causing dermatitis and often
Used in China as an infertility agent in men it should
not be used in this context as it could cause permanent infertility in men.
Sesquiterpenes have antifungal, antibacterial and anaesthetic properties.
It is also thought that they
prevent migraines and can be used as antibiotics and to treat Malaria but there
is very little in depth testing results available to support these claims.
Lactones: A lactone is an Ester that's
functional group has become part of a ring structure with carbon atoms.
Lactones are widely present in the plant kingdom and many are expectorants and